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Understanding The Background Of Farm Surveying

Understanding The Background Of Farm Surveying


Farm surveying is the process of measuring of a farmland.The measurements by tables, plans or layout are done for some specific purposes. This can also mean the measuring and mapping out the position,size and boundaries of an area of farmland.


Importance of Farm Surveying

1. Farm surveying makes the gradient of the land known

2. Farm surveying secure the farmland

3. It's help to determine the amount of inputs of labour,seeds, fertilizers and chemicals that is needed for the farm land.

4. Farm surveying can helps the farmers get loans

5. It helps to know the hectarage of the land.

6. Surveying doesn't encourages the wasting of land.

7. It helps to know the productivity of crops

8 It helps the farmers to know where somethings will be situated like farm building, ponds etc


Some Equipment Needed for Farm Surveying

Some of equipment needed includes;

1. Ranging pole

2. Gunter Chain 

3. Measuring tape

4. Prismatic compass

5. Theodolite

6. Offset staff

7. Arrows or pins

8. Beacons or pillars


Ranging pole 

Features

(I) Ranging pole is made of wood or metal

(ii) Ranging pole has a pointed end

(iii) Ranging pole is usually black, bright red and white in colour which enable it to be seen from a long distance.

(iv) It has a varying lengths e g 1.8m, 2.4m or 3.0m

Functions / Uses of Ranging Pole

(i) It is used for marking land stations.

(ii) It is used for marking straight lines.


Gunter's Chains

Features of Gunter Chain

(I) The chains is made of metals.

(ii) It has a brass handles at either side.

(iii) One Gunter's Chain is usually of 20.13m (66ft) in length.

(iv) A link is the distance that's from the middle of the central ring to the middle of the next central ring.

(v) Gunter's Chain is divided into 100 link so that each link is 19.8cm or of inches 7.92.


Precaution to be taken before using Gunter's Chain

(I) Pull taut chains

(ii) Avoid errors of transposing numbers on the papers.

(iii) Equipment such as theodolite should be placed right on the perfect horizontal plane.

(iv) All the chains, ropes must be lein before taking the measurements

(v) Avoid error when reading the measurements

(vi) Always make sure the chain is not faulty before use.

Function of Gunter's Chain; It is used in taking short or correct measurements of the land breadth and length.


Measuring Tapes

Features of Measuring Tapes

(I) Measuring Tapes is usually made of linen or steel sheet

(ii) The tape is usually wound in a small casing from where it will be unwound when wanting to use.

(iii) The tapes is of various length and types depending of the maker and price.

Function of Measuring Tapes

It is used for the measurements of length, breadth and heights.


Prismatic Compass

Features of Prismatic Compass

(i) Prismatic compass is always placed on a stand.

(ii) It has a straight slot

(iii) Prismatic compass has a prism.

(iv) It has a compass that is marked in degrees,half degrees,minutes and second.

Uses of Prismatic Compass

(i) It is used in taking land bearing.

(ii) It can be used to measure angular distances.


Theodolite

Features of theodolite

(i) It consist of a tripod stand, that may be made of light weight metal or wood in solid or telescopic legs.

(ii) The tripod stand forks the base of the instrument.

(iii) It has a plate that is under which contains the gradual horizontal circle made of glass or brass.

Use of theodolite: It is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles of the land.


Arrows or Pins

Features of Arrows 

(i) These are thin steel that has a pointed mouth shape wire of of about 30cm long with one end curved into a ring

(ii) A flashy cloth like red should be attached to the ring so that it can be seen from far.

Uses of Pins

(i) It can be used to mark stations

(ii) It can be used during chaining for marking the length that are off chain.


Offset Staff

Features of Offset Staff

(I) This is a graduated rod of 3m long

(ii) Each telescopic link is 30cm in length

Uses of offset staff

It can be used to take short offset measurements.


Beacons or Pillars

Features of Pillars

(I) It is made of concrete block that is rectangular in shape.

(ii) There is always mark on the top of the block.

(iii) The pillars are buried to the ground and have some part raised as little above the ground to identify the land  

Uses of Pillars

(i) It is used to recognize the measured area

(ii) It is used to mark up measured points.


General Maintenance of Surveying Instrument

1. All equipment must be cleaned after usage 

2. Use instrument for only its purpose.

3. Keep the instrument in a dry and cool place

4. Replace the instrument worn out parts.

5. Those metal parts of the instrument should be greased or oiled or even painted to avoid rusting.

6. Competent surveyor should handle the instruments only 

7. Ensure rain doesn't touch the instrument.


Farm Planning 

Farm planning is the drawing of a farmstead. It involves the proper use of land. 

Importance of Farm Planning

(i) It enables the farmers to use the land properly.

(ii) It ensures that farm building are in the right place.

(iii) It promotes farm neatness and prevent the pollution of farmstead.


Factors necessary for planning farmstead

A farmstead is known as the farm house and all its production and processing structure. A farmstead is the farmer's place of dwelling and centre of production.

Factors Influencing the Sitting of Farmstead

1. Topography:- This determine the location of the farm building

2. Soil types:- Fertile soil are the best for agriculture and this type of soil is needed for crop and less fertile should be used to build farmstead.

3. Accessibility:- Location facilities within the walking distances.

4. Water Supply:- Adequate water supply is needed for animals and human uses.

5. Health/Hygiene: Make sure you situate livestock house away from human house 

6. Nearness to market: Nearness to market reduces transportation fee to transport crops.

7. Drainage: Good slope of land facilitate proper drainage.

Understanding The Background Of Farm Surveying Understanding The Background Of Farm Surveying Reviewed by Soundlordz on September 21, 2020 Rating: 5

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