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Some Elements That is Useful for Plant Growth

Plant Nutrients are the necessary requirements needed by plant to have a good growth and healthy development.These elements of nutrients are classified into two main groups which are: Macro-Nutrients and Micro Nutrients or Trace elements.

These are mineral elements or nutrients required by plants in large quantities.Examples of macro-nutrients are phosphorus, potassium, magnesium,calcium, sulphur and Nitrogen.

Micro Nutrients
Micro-nutrients can also be regarded as Trace elements. Micro nutrients are the mineral nutrients or elements that is required by crops in small quantities.Examples of micro-nutrients includes zinc, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum,iron,boron and copper.

Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Plant Nutrients

1. Nitrogen

Functions of Nitrogen in Plant
(i) It promotes vegetative and short system growth.
(ii) Nitrogen increases the size of cereals or carbohydrates synthesis.
(iii) Nitrogen aids plants growth and reproduction .
(iv) It is necessary for plants synthesis of hormones.
(v) Nitrogen helps plants to build deep green colour of leaves .

Deficiency symptoms of Nitrogen in Plant
(i) Lack of nitrogen leads to stunted growth of plants and excess leads to delay maturation and fruiting.
(ii) Lack of nitrogen leads to fall of leaves.
(iii) Poor formation of fruits
(iv) Yellowing of leaves.

2. Phosphorus

Functions of Phosphorus in Plant

(i) It aids the enzymes reactions
(ii) Phosphorus so formation of fruits and its maturity.
(iii) Phosphorus increases crop resistance to diseases.
(iv) Phosphorus aids the ripening of fruits.
(v) Phosphorus helps the germination of seed.

Deficiency Symptoms in Plants
(i) It cause stunted growth.
(ii) Leaves turn to purple or dull grey green colour.
(iii) Inhibition of flowering,fruits and seed formation..

3. Potassium

Functions of Potassium in Plants
(I) Potassium is the major constituents of plant tissue.
(ii) Potassium aids synthesis of carbohydrates.
(iii) Potassium promotes the development of young plants.
(iv) Potassium is necessary for neutralisation of organic acids in plants.
(v) It helps in nitrate uptake from the soil.

Deficiency of Potassium in Plants
(i) Weak slender stems
(ii) Delayed growth
(iii) Premature loss of leaves

4. Calcium

Functions of Calcium
(i) Calcium helps to strengthen the plant cell walls.
(ii) Calcium improves the PH of soil so that nitrogen fixation can happen.
(iii) Calcium is necessary for the normal growth of root tips.

Deficiency of Calcium in Plants
(I) Weak slender of plants.
(ii) Deficiency of calcium cause the stunting of the root system.
(iii) It causes loss of colour turning it to pale yellow colour in leaves.

5. Magnesium

Functions of Magnesium in Plants
(i) It is important in the synthesis of carbohydrate as it is a constituent of chlorophyll.
(ii) It assists in the transportation of phosphate an essential material to developing fruit seeds.
(iii) It enhances plant growth.
(iv) It is necessary for synthesis of oils in plants.
(v) It is required for normal cell division.
Deficiency of Magnesium in Plants.
(i) Premature leaf- fall
(ii) Stunted growth
(iii) Chlorosis along the leaf veins.

6. Sulphur

Functions of Sulphur in Plants.
(i) It is a consituent of plant proteins since it occurs in some amino acids such as cystine and methionine
(ii) It is also a constituent of plant homones such as biotein and thiamin .
(iii) It is essential for chlorophyll formation.
(iv) It is also required for carbohydrate metabolism and nitrogen fixation by legumes.
Deficiency Symptoms of Sulphur in Plants
(i) Yellowing of leaves
(ii) Stunted growth of the plants
(iii) Poor rate of Photosynthesis in plant

7. Iron

Functions of Iron in Plant
(i) Iron is necessary for chlorophyll formation
(ii) It is very essential in enzymes system that is associated with both oxidation and reduction reactions.
Deficiency Symptom of Iron in Plants
The leaves of plants becomes pale green.

8. Boron

Functions of Boron in Plants
(i) This elements increases the yield of crops
(ii) This elements facilitates the development of plant roots.
(iii) Boron assist in the formation of fruits and seeds.
(iv) It facilitates the nodulation in leguminous plants.

Deficiency of Symptoms in Plants
(i) It causes the poor growth of plants
(ii) Lack of boron cause the breaking and lodging
(iii) When boron is absent, there will be a failure in the development of flower buds
(iv) Lack of boron can cause death of tips of thw root and shoots of plant.

Factors that influence the available nutrient in soil.

1. Soil PH
The degree of acidity and alkalinity of the soil affects the availability of the nutrients in soil and plant.
(i) At high PH, calcium and magnesium ions accumulate in the soil, and it really affects the growth of plants.
(ii) A low PH that is acidic reduces the activities of some soil living organisms which aids the decomposition of organic matter
(iii) A low PH will encourage the disintegration of clay minerals like calcium, iron and aluminum which are leached away from the soil.
2. Erosion:- Heavy rainfall can cause the washing away the nutrients in the top soil that is necessary for the growth of plant.Top soil can be blown away by winds that will result in the reduction in the soil.
3. Burning:- Bush burning exposes the soil to erosion which can wash the nutrients of the top soil.It kills most of the soil organisms that is needed for plant growth.Bush burning burns the organic matter content in the soil.
4. Soil Texture:- Soil with fine texture such as a clay and silt retains soil nutrients but coarse texture doesn't support nutrients because it can be washed away easily because the particles is loosely packed.
5. Leaching:- This is process where the soil nutrients is washed to the inner of the soil that the root of the plants can reach. This result in the poor growth of plants.
6. Crop Removal:- Nutrients are removed from the soil as the crops grows, develop and harvested. The nutrients of the soil are removed as the crops are harvested. The continual cultivation of crops leads to the loss of plant nutrients.
7. Oxidation and Reduction of Organic Material:- Nitrates are reduced to molecular nitrogen or oxides of nitrogen by denitrifying the soil bacteria.This products that escapes into the atmosphere in form gases which makes the soil to loose nutrients and poorer in nutrients.

Some Elements That is Useful for Plant Growth Some Elements That is Useful for Plant Growth Reviewed by Soundlordz on September 15, 2020 Rating: 5

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